Art Archie..

Pinterest Button[Standard/None]

150 years celebrating St Pancras railway station, London

I love travelling on trains and ships, but not so much on planes. 

St Pancras is a C19th station that provides regional, inter-city, continental services to London. It is London’s second busiest railway station, the terminus for Eurostar trains arriving from Europe. But who was St Pancras?

A short Latin account of his martyrdom suggested that Pancras was born to a wealthy Christian family in Phrygia (Turkey). After the death of his par­ents, he moved to Rome with his guardian. There they both gave shelter to Christians persecuted by the Emperor Dioc­letian (284-305 AD). When the Emperor heard of Pancras’ eff­orts to save Christians, he im­mediately summoned him. He tried to dissuade the 14 year old him from Christianity but Pancras was adamant. Enraged, the Emperor ordered Pancras' immediate beheading and burial in Rome c287CE.

What made Saint Pancras' cult so potent were the mir­acles assoc­iated with his relics. No wonder that Pancras’ relics were soon distributed to many other churches, towns and countries, even Britain. The relics of Pancras sent by popes to England were used to re-consecrate old Romano-British churches. And as a result, churches dedicated to Pancras include St Pancras Old Church in Camden, from which the railway station took its name.

Before the 1860s, the London Midland & Scottish Railway/LMS had no direct line into London, routing its goods and passenger traffic via the London and North Western railway to Euston, and from 1858 via a route into Kings Cross station, operated by the Great Northern Railway. They wished to ex­tend its line from Bedford to London in order to compete for the Yorkshire railway traffic. Foll­owing disputes in 1862, Midland Railway got a bill from Parliament for a route from its line at Bedford via Luton and St Albans into St Pan­c­ras, its suitably grand terminus! 

St Pancras Station and Midland Grand Hotel

The Victorian neo-gothic station was designed and built in two parts; the train building and the hotel frontage. Midland’s consultant engineer, William Henry Barlow, designed the extension route and station layout, including the single span arched train shed built from iron and glass. At 243’ by 110’ high at its apex, it was then the largest ironwork structure of its kind. As the 6 platforms were tied to the ribs, the train shed area was spacious compared to other sites, making the structure much more flexible.

Because the line had to bridge the Regents Canal, the platforms at St Pancras were built on a high, imposing level. Resting on 850 cast iron pillars, this gave the station space underneath for storage of goods. The distance between the columns was measured using one of the Midland Railway’s most lucrative goods: beer.

In 1865, a competition was held to design the front of the station and hotel, won by famous neo-gothic architect George Gilbert Scott. Construction of the hotel started in 1868, but an economic downturn meant that the prominent Midland Grand Hotel was only finished in 1876. The hotel was expensive, with a grand staircase, rooms with gold leaf walls and a fireplace in every room.

In 1923 St Pancras was transferred to the management of the London Midland & Scottish Railway which focused its activities on Eus­ton. And so began the decline of St Pancras over 60 years. In 1935 the Midland Grand Hotel was closed due to falling business, so the building was used instead as office accommodation for railway staff and renamed St Pancras Chambers.

Station's top floor
Train platforms
Note the single-span iron and glass roof


Station's lower floor
Shops and restaurants

The Betjeman Arms Pub

Barrels of beer had long come to London from the Bass Brewery in Burton on Trent. Open­ing up the station undercroft allowed developers to let in the light from the roof. The building held the new Eurostar lounge, shops, restaurants and food halls, created in the space Barlow had originally designed for beer barrels. The storage and distribution of ale under the station platforms continued up until post-WW2, with the arrival of the last steam train from the brewery. 

During WW2, the station played an important role for troops dep­arting for war and for children being evacuated out of London. Although the station was hit hard during the blitz, there was only super­ficial damage and the station was quickly functioning again.

Throughout the 1950s-60s, St Pancras’ decline continued and British Railways tried to close and demolish the station. Writer John Betjeman led a campaign to save the station and hotel, and in Nov 1967 successfully had the buildings declared Grade 1 listed, just before demolition was due to begin. Although the buildings were saved, the train shed roof fell into a state of serious disrepair. 

The Channel Tunnel opened in May 1994, but high speed trains were only able to reach their maximum speeds on the French side of the Chunnel. In 1996 the gov­ern­ment passed the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act, authorising the construction of a high speed line from the Chunnel to a redeveloped St Pancras International.

St Pancras’ revival started: to extend platforms long enough to accept Eurostar trains, an add­it­ional train shed to the rear of Barlow’s original was designed by Foster & Partners. The west wall of the station was rebuilt using 16 million bricks, made exactly as the original was. New public works of art include the statue of the station’s “saviour” John Betjeman and the 30’ tall bronze sculpture called The Meeting Place, under the station clock. Oak doors for the main entrances were made anew.

St Pancras International Station was officially opened on in Nov 2007 with Eurostar and East Midland services. At the end of 2009, high speed domestic services began between St Pancras and Kent.

Hotel reception room

The company that owns and operates the station has launched Cele­brate St Pancras – The People, The Place, The Journey this year. Its exhibition, open until the end of 2018, analyses the construct­ion and transform­ation of the space, role of women in the rail­way industry, impact of world wars and the station’s brewing heritage. St Pancras ale, brewed by Rivers Brewing, is available at The Betjeman Arms in the station.







Share:

No comments:

Post a comment

Fashion

Popular Posts

Powered by Blogger.

Random Posts

Recent Posts

Recent in Sports

Header Ads

test

Stay Connected

Subscribe for New Post Notifications

About Me

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Labels

My Instagram

About Author

Katherine

This season, the American designer will showcase a series of historic objects from the New York museum's.

Stay Connected

Sidebar Ads

My Instagram

Category Background[Hex Color Code]

Recent Posts

Unordered List

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.
  • Aliquam tincidunt mauris eu risus.
  • Vestibulum auctor dapibus neque.

Sample Text

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

Pages

Theme Support

Need our help to upload or customize this blogger template? Contact me with details about the theme customization you need.