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Dr William Harvey, a brave scholar on blood circulation Guest blog

Galen, a skilled C2nd AD Greek physician and scholar, taught that there were three main inter-connected systems involved in blood flow: a] brain and nerves; b] heart and arteries; and c] liver and veins. Dark, ven­ous blood formed in the liver and then travelled through the veins through­out the body, to del­iv­er nour­ishment and build tissues. Some blood would come into contact with air in the lungs and go to the heart.

Sometimes the liver produced too much blood, and the body became imbalanced, leading to illness. Blood-letting, drawing off the excess fluid, restored balance.

Galen’s teachings dominated European medicine and schol­ar­ship for centuries, mistakes and all. But one of the main Chinese medicine manuals (Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine c300 BC) stated that all blood in the body was pumped by the heart, completed a circle and kept moving! And in the C13th the Arab Dr Ibn an-Nafis suggested blood circulated only from the heart to the lungs and back, with­out spreading further. Even Italian anat­omist Realdo Colombo (1516-59), who exam­ined the beating hearts of animals during vivisect­ions, couldn’t interpret the heart’s function con­fid­ently.
 
Dr Harvey showing King Charles I his theory of blood circulation ,
painted by R Hanna, dated ?

So in early C17th Europe, most scientific concepts were still based on ancient philosophy & theology. Were contemporary an­at­omical studies limited by doc­t­rinal disapp­rov­al? Or from fear of heresy charges? The dog­matic College of Phys­icians still ch­amp­ioned Galen’s class­icism, even when experiment­at­ion became leg­itim­ate science. 

William Harvey (1578-1657) was born in Folkestone, Kent where his father had been a freeholder-farmer. From King's College in Cant­er­bury, the clever young man got a schol­ar­ship to Cam­bridge Univers­ity.

Then in 1600 he joined other clever C16th Eng­lish al­umni at Padua Univ­ersity, Europe’s best medical school. He did post-grad Medicine under surgeon Girolamo Fab­ric­ius, watching his mentor dissect dead criminals and living animals. Fabricius had discovered valves in the veins and concluded that animal blood moved around in a circle continuously, via the pumping heart!

Back home in 1602, Harvey established himself as a physician & married the daughter of Queen Eliz­abeth's royal physician. In 1607, he took the pos­ition of Surgery Lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians and became physic­ian to St Barth­ol­omew's Hos­pital. In 1618 he became royal physician to King James I (ruled 1603–25) and later Dr Harvey, already a committed royal­ist, served the next King, Charles I.

Harvey was developing a new theory to explain how blood flowed through the body, based on evidence from his dissections. In the hearts in living animals, Harvey could see that systole was the active phase of the heart's move­ment, pumping out the blood by its muscul­ar contraction. The action of the heart mov­ed blood out through the arteries to the body, and then back to the heart via veins, dispelling Galen's theories.

Harvey isolated parts of the heart; he ligated and divided arteries and exerted press­ure on veins on either side of the valves. He utilised cold-blooded animals because their heartbeats were slow, showing that the heart valves allowed blood to flow in only one direction. Harvey revealed his findings at the College of Physic­ians in 1616.

William Harvey published diagram, demonstrating existence of valves in veins. 
Published in De Motu Cordis, 1628

Was Dr Harvey Protestant, Catholic or rationalist?  It has been suggested he was Anglican because although his theories contrasted sharply with the accepted beliefs, Harvey was cautious in his crit­icisms of tradit­ional values. He was a thinking Renaissance man, not a man of the Science Revolution.

In 1628 Dr Harvey produced a shortish, cheap book in Latin called An Anatom­ical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals, pub­lished in Frankfurt. Yet it became one of the most influential books in west­ern science history. And since both Stuart kings had so warm­ly encouraged Harvey's research, the au­th­or was described on the title page as the royal phys­ician.

As with many new ideas, his revolutionary circul­ation theory was received with interest in Britain. Many prop­onents agreed with Harvey because of logical experimentation and quantitative methods. Or for religious and philosoph­ical reas­ons.  But there was also controversy among his British colleagues. Some opposed the circulation theory be­cause of their firm commitment to ancient doctrines, the uncertainty of experimentation or because of personal resentments.

In Europe Harvey’s findings were met with some scepticism; while Molière supported Harv­ey’s views, Descar­t­es and others rejected the idea that the heart pumped the blood. So pract­ising physic­ians in Europe continued to use trad­it­ional remed­ies bas­ed on Gal­en’s human physiology eg enemas, purg­atives, blood­letting.

In 1636 Dr Harvey was sent in a diplomatic mission to Holy Roman emperor, Ferdinand II - a year of travel around Europe, meeting famous professors of medicine, philosophy (eg Thom­as Hobbes), literature and art. His connections were impressive. But a great deal of his written work was lost when parliamentary troops ransacked his White­hall home in 1642.

He followed the king on the Scottish campaigns of 1639-41 and in 1642-6 during the English Civil Wars, in Oxford and Newcastle. Harvey returned to London in 1645 and largely retired from public life, becoming the quiet warden of Merton College, Oxford (1645-6) instead.

In 1649 Har­v­ey published Two Anat­omical Exer­cises on the Circul­at­ion of the Blood in response to critic­ism from French anatomists. On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals came out in Eng­lish in 1653. He had calculated the total volume of blood that moved through the body in an hour and showed that it was too high for the body to replenish. The amount of blood in the human body HAD to be constant and in perpetual motion.

An Anatom­ical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals,
written by Dr W Harvey, 1628
pub­lished in Latin in Frankfurt.

The Great Fire of London in 1666 engulfed the library that Harvey helped establish at the Royal College of Physicians. His notes on patients, post mortem examinations and animal dissect­ions were lost.

Nonetheless his research continued. Human reprod­uction was poorly understood, so Harvey investigated the role of sperm and menstrual blood in the formation of the embryo. His observations were excellent, but such matters could not be resolved properly without the use of the microscope (which was invented soon after Harvey’s death).

Eventually the poor doctor suffered from kidney stones. He published his final work, Exercises on the Generation of Animals,  n 1651. Harvey attempted suicide but failed and died from stroke at 79 in 1657.

Thomas Wright, Circ­ul­ation: William Harvey's Revolut­ion­ary Idea 2013 was very helpful.

Thanks to the guest blogger, Dr Joe.





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How the Englishman Pike Ward modernised Iceland. Who?

Edited by Katherine FindlayThe Icelandic Adventures of Pike Ward is the fas­cin­ating diary of a Devon fish merchant who became an im­portant figure in creating modern Iceland. Katherine Findlay wrote the introduction and epilogue when his book was published.

Pike Ward's (1856-1937) contemporary records were found in his 1906 journal, telling how he mixed in Reykjavík society to how he bargained for fish on the remote coastal areas. He had to tra­v­el by pack horse and steamship through wild terrain and wild seas, while attempting to outwit his rivals and cope with the challenges of an isolated and unfamiliar. Clearly it was a key era in Iceland's history.

Now back to the beginning. There was a company founded in Devon by George Ward in the mid C19th as a joint venture with his in-laws, the Pike family. The com­pany was prim­ar­ily a ship broker, transp­ort­ing clay from the Newton Abbot mines, although George Ward also had interests in shipping insurance and the cod trade in Newfoundland. George and his wife Eliza were prom­in­ent people in Teignmouth, and George served on the city council.

Teignmouth shipping agents, Devon

They had connections to the Congregationalist Church and its trad­ition of religious and political dissent. Their eldest son Pike Ward worked for the ship broking company in Teignmouth, and by the time he was 25 in 1881, he was partner in his father’s firm. Over the next years he gained an extensive knowledge of both the Teignmouth Quay Co and the workings of the harbour.

When George died, Eliza Ward took over running the business and continued until c1912, when she was in her 70s. She was a clever, capable businesswoman who earned the respect of mine owners and sea capt­ains alike. But rather than following the fam­ily business, Pike travelled. He left Teignmouth in 1891 but within a couple of years the Newfound­land Banks in Canada had become over-fished.

Map of Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

So in 1895 he trav­el­led to Iceland. Why there? Iceland had long been a pl­ace of myth and legend but at that time, it was a rather poor country gov­erned by Denmark. Infant mortality was high, star­v­ation happened and the small community survived as best they could. The population was only allowed to fish close to shore; any excess fish had to be bartered with the Danish fishing companies for goods

It was there he became a very important figure in the found­ation of the fishing industry, and with it, a more modern, indep­endent nation. Pike's agent travelled first, to show Icelandic Fisherman how to prepare the fish for the English market. Then Pike revolutionised the Icelandic economy by buying for cash the smaller fish unwanted by the large Danish companies. Then he show­ed the local community how to dry, salt and preserve them because dried and salted fish was very popul­ar in England. Devon particularly loved Pike’s fish and made them into fish pies. Pike Ward’s skill as a ship­broker enabled the company to flourish and this in turn enabled a] the Icelanders to get a good price for the fish and b] Pike to be warmly valued for enab­ling the northern commun­ity to thrive for the first time in ages.


A blue plaque was unveiled by Ice­land's ambassador to the UK

In Iceland he became a leg­end in the fishing industry, especially Salt Fish production. And in the West of England, his reput­ation as a seafarer, adven­turer and a trader in the High Latitudes grew. At least until the threat of German Submarine activity in 1914!

During his time in Iceland, Pike became very fond of the ragged nat­ure and hospitable locals, spending extensive time travelling, col­lecting artefacts, learning the local language and becoming int­eg­rated into Icelandic culture and daily life. He was an amateur photo­grapher of everyday life.
This British man stayed in Iceland for 22 years. He learned to speak Icelandic and made warm friendships with local people. Many Icelandic people still regarded him as a key figure in the movement which fin­ally led to Icelandic independence from Denmark.

Icelandic whalebones, made into two huge arches on the Devon's sea­front

As WW1 started, Eliza retired and Pike returned home to take over the company. He brought back a host of Icelandic artefacts to his Teignmouth villa, incl­ud­ing whalebones that were made into two huge arches on the sea­front, and called his villa Valhalla. From then on, Pike Ward ran the family business until his death in 1937.

Two honours were given, before and after he died. In 1936 his contribut­ion was recognised in Ice­land. King Christian X of Denmark gave him Iceland's high­est hon­our, Grand Cross of the Order of the Icelandic Falcon. And a plaque was created in his home town of Teignmouth. The plaque was unveiled by Stefan Johannesson, Ice­land's ambassador to the UK, in Old Maids Walk in the town.

Artefacts from the Pike Ward collection, the Nation­al Museum of Iceland (above)
Photo from the Pike Ward collection, the Nation­al Museum of Iceland (below)


Many decades later, a different honour has been opened. The hund­reds of typically Icelandic artefacts from Ward´s collection have been returned to Ice­land where the National Museum of Iceland pre­served and stored them in the Museum. But it was the discovery of his diaries and photo­graphs in 2016 by Katherine Findlay at the Devon Archives that re-sparked a the most interest in the story of the Englishman. His entire photographic collection from Iceland, including the scrap books and albums, totalled 1500+ pictures. An exhibition of his photographs has opened already at the Nation­al Museum of Iceland, displaying a selection of photos and artefacts from the Pike Ward collection. It will close on 20th Jan 2020.









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Cristobal Balenciaga comes to Bendigo (near Melbourne)

Born in a small fishing village in Spain’s Basque region, Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972) began studying dress­making at 10. The tragic early death of his maritime father forced his mother to support the family by sewing; luckily her clients in­cluded the best dressed women in the village.

At 12 Cristobal began a proper tailoring apprenticeship in the summer resort of San Sebas­tian. In 1917 it was there he est­ab­lish­ed a fashion house. His first trip to Paris inspired him to become a top couturier, and within a few years he’d became famous. Balenciaga became Spain’s leading couturier, first in San Sebastián, then in Madrid & Barcelona.

In 1937, when the Spanish Civil War brought chaos to the country, he quickly emigrated to Paris. For the next 30 years his collections featured sumptuously elegant dresses and suits. Balenciaga helped popularise the trend toward capes, and flowing clothes without waistlines, in the late 1950s.

Apparently the Master obsessively tried to perfect the clean lines and cuts of the fabric, with equal skill in each hand. Focusing on broader shoulders and new volumes, he developed a luxurious sil­houette, oft­en making the detailed backs of garments the heart of his shows. His craftmanship was exquisite and his designs were innovative.

Balenciaga's Spanish heritage influenced many of his most iconic designs. His wide-hipped Infanta dresses from the late 1930s drew on the portraiture of the C17th Spanish artist Diego Veláz­quez. He loved flamenco dresses, matador outfits and black lace, seen in the traditional mantilla shawls worn by women during Spanish Holy Week.

The Spaniard’s house on Avenue Georges V quickly be­came Paris’ most expensive and exclusive couturier. And because of his early train­ing, he knew his craft inside out; he was adept at every stage of the process, from pattern-drafting to cutting, assembling and finishing a garment. For him, the design process started with the fabric, proving that he knew how to ex­p­loit materials to their maximum.

Wedding gown, 1952

Seamless dress, 1957

In the 1950s Balenciaga pioneered new shapes in women's fashion. These radical designs evolved gradually, as he reworked the same ideas over time. Volume fil­led the balloon hems of his early 1950s dresses, and was then used at the back of his semi-fit lines in the mid-50s i.e dresses and jackets fitted at the front but with loose roomy backs. He shocked the fash­ion world in 1957 by introducing the sack dress, a straight up and down shift dress which comp­letely eliminated the waist. At a time when Christ­ian Dior's hour-glass shaped New Look was still dom­in­ant, the sack was met with hostility at first. But like many of Balen­cia­ga's most radic­al designs, this look eventual­ly filtered into the main-stream, and the sack dress predicted the 1960’s mini-dress.

The baby doll dress, characterised by its trapeze-shaped silhouette without a marked waist, owed its name to the short dress worn in 1956 in an Elia Kazan film. So while it was not an invention of Bal­­enciaga, it WAS the Spaniard who, in the late 1950s, had the baby doll contours defined. Thereafter, the style was released in many different shapes, sizes and materials, an inspiration to those who followed. [I wore a baby doll dress for years!]

Balenciaga dressed some of the most glamorous women of the 1950s & 60s including Hollywood actress Ava Gardener, fashion icon Gloria Guinness and Mona von Bismarck, one of the world's wealth­iest wom­en, who commissioned everything she needed. The balloon jacket, tunic dress, empire lines and baby dolls all contributed to a fluid and feminine look. His work was much loved for its simple geometric quality, its pre­cise angular quality and its textures. Finally note the gentle curve of the shoulder line and capacious impression given by this cape coat, 1961. 

Cape coat, 1961

Envelope dress, 1967

Balenciaga closed his Paris business in 1968 and Cristóbal retired, before dying 4 years later (at 77). The news shocked his clientele who reported a real feeling of loss. In one sense, it was the end of an era. Yet the mas­ter's innovative patterns, use of new mater­ials and bold archit­ect­ural shapes have remained influential. Eventually a new wave of designers arrived, to bring the brand into the modern era.

Listing dresses and coats to stockings, plus the most luxurious fabrics and col­our combinations, fashion editor Diana Vree­land credited Cristóbal Bal­enciaga for creating the future of fash­ion. He had led a revolution in fashion, revered by his colleagues eg Christian Dior & Coco Chanel. French designers Emanuel Ungaro and Andre Courrèges, both Balenciaga protégés, took forward their teacher's minimalist aesthetic and modernism into space-age chic.

In 1972 London’s V&A created a groundbreaking exhibition Fashion: an Anthology by Cecil Beaton. Today the Balenciaga pieces are some of the most frequently studied in the Fashion collections, remain­ing a source of inspiration for the next generation of fashion designers. Now two more modern exhibitions have examined the work and legacy of infl­uential Spanish couturier Cristóbal Bal­enciaga. London’s V&A holds the largest collection of Balenciaga garments and hats in the UK. Many pieces were sourced for the Mus­eum by society photographer Cecil Beaton, who used his contacts to ass­em­ble a prestigious coll­ect­ion of C20th couture. In 2017-18 the V&A showed 100+ pieces crafted by the Master of couture, his students and contemporary designers working in his innovative tradition.

Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion is at the Bendigo Art Gallery near Melbourne, until mid Nov 2019 . Bendigo is exhibiting 100+ garments and hats crafted by Balenciaga in the 1950s & 1960s, arguably the most creative period of his career.







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Beautiful old American synagogues revived for a second life.

Paula Jacobs showed that across the USA, historic shules (synagogues) became Jewish cultural centres and museums, breathing new life into dilapidated and empty shule buildings. They preserved the stories of C20th American Jewish immig­rants and their neighbour­hoods, while adding cont­emp­or­ary artistic, cultural and social justice elements.

In Chelsea Mass, the Jews made up a larger percentage of the city’s population than in any other American city. 50+% Jewish back then, the kosher butchers, bakeries and 18 shules were located within the small area. Only in the 1970s did the Jewish population dwindle because of suburban migration. This working-class city just north of Boston is now 65% Latino; Hispanic churches line its narrow streets.

Walnut St synagogue in in Chelsea, Mass
Will become Chelsea Jewish Museum and Cultural Centre

In Sept 2019 Walnut St Synagogue, Chelsea’s only extant Or­th­odox shule, celebrated its Founders’ Day. 250 attendees (des­cen­dants of shule founders, City Councillors, former and current Chelsea residents) came to honour their legacy.

The shule’s size and grandeur made it the foremost site in Chelsea, and wor­thy of efforts to restore it. But note that most mem­b­ers lived outside Chel­sea and were over 60. It became a struggle to pay bills, maintain and heat this large, old struct­ure. The President propos­ed in 2017 to transform the shule, a proposal accepted by the Board of Directors.

Walnut St is a four storey structure listed on the National Reg­is­ter of Historic Places, at the old centre of Chelsea Jewish life. Its magnificent 1,109-seat san­ctuary houses an extant ark made by Ukrainian-born woodworker Sam Katz. An original ceiling painting depicts trompe l’oeil heavens. The shule’s study hall has a fine collection of hist­orical and religious arte­facts from Chelsea and nearby commun­it­ies whose shules closed. See numerous Yiddish signs, posters and newspapers recording C20th Jewish life in Chelsea.

Following the example of other historic USA shules that success­fully adapted themselves for C21st audiences, the shule will become the Chelsea Jewish Museum and Cultural Centre. Walnut St will reach a wider audience and preserve Jewish immigrant by becoming a history museum-cultural centre. Final costs will be determined when they receive the archit­ectural firm’s report, and when the strat­egic plan and capital campaign is finalised. In two years a cultural centre-museum should be open to visitors on weekdays, while shule services will take place on Shabbat and holidays.

The shule’s partner­ship with Chelsea Collaborative will present cul­tural program­mes for the local Latino population eg con­certs of Latin American music. The shule will also work with Boston Jewish organisations to hold lectures and film festivals in its huge sanct­uary.

Vilna Shule was built in 1919 in Boston’s historic Beacon Hill section, the last remaining Immigrant Era shule in Bost­on’s CBD. It sat empty until Boston’s Cen­tre for Jewish Culture purchased the buil­ding in 1995. Since 2008, the centre has hosted concerts, speakers, films, family events, Shabbat and holiday services. An exhibit on the immig­ration history of Boston will open in Dec 2019.

Vilna Shule Boston, built in 1919  
Now Boston’s Cen­tre for Jewish Culture

The Vilna Shule’s previous home, close by, was once the Twelfth Bap­tist Church. It was the site of the African American sold­iers of the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, during the Civil War. The church’s C19th wooden pews, now in the Vilna Shule’s sanctuary, are being res­tored, with hand-painted, decorative murals depicting biblical scenes.

Baltimore’s historic Lloyd St Synagogue was built in 1830 by archit­ect Robert Cary Long. The building was later sold by the congregation in 1889 to a Catholic parish which occupied it until 1905. It was then sold back to the Jew­ish community. Saved from demolition by the Jewish Historical Society, the shule now operates as the Jewish Museum of Maryland. The sanctuary has original pews and there is also a C19th bath-mikveh using water from local falls. Maryland Jew­ish history and trad­itions are exhibited in art, historical photos, videos and objects from daily immigrant life.

Was the Lloyd St Synagogue, Baltimore
Now the Jewish Museum of Maryland

The Maine Jewish Museum is housed in Portland’s restored Etz Chaim Con­greg­ation. Due to changing demographics, the formerly Orthodox congregation became non-affiliated and egalitarian when the museum was founded in 2010, resulting in an increased member­ship. The museum houses a permanent exhibition on Maine Jewish history, starting when people arrived in the 1880s. And it now has changing contemp­orary art exhibits, and a permanent photo exhibit of Maine’s Hol­o­caust survivors. 

Dr Joseph Gumbiner was a civil rights leader and founding rabbi in the oldest shule in Arizona: Temple Emanu-El. Jacobs showed that the Jewish His­t­ory Museum & Holo­caust Centre in Tuc­son now attracts c12,000-15,000 visitors annually and connects Jewish history to other marg­in­alised groups eg LGBTQ community, Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar and migr­ants on the USA southern border.

The Museum at Eldridge St in New York is housed in the rest­or­ed Eldridge St Synagogue (built in 1887), a splendid National Hist­oric Landmark and the last vestige of Jewish life on the Lower East Side NY. The Museum at Eldridge St offers cultural, educational programmes and special events, including multi-language tours for its 40,000 international visitors annually. In 2020, programmes honouring women will commemorate women’s suffrage in 1920.

Eldridge St Synagogue, New York built in 1887
Now the Museum at Eldridge St.

So the trend toward preserving these old religious sites continues across the country. Art and architectural historian Samuel Gruber noted that in addition to the historical and artistic significance of these sites, this generation can recognise the legacy of personal and community memory.

See Gruber’s blog post on Chevra T’helim (opened 1917) in Ports­mouth, Virginia. The Orthodox congregation built a new shule that combined Old World and New architecture. The brick exterior was fronted by a Colonial style columnar façade. Inside the architecture and furn­ishings maintained a traditional Eastern European style with 3 galleries for women and a central bimah. The Friends of Chevra T’helim looked to the achievements of the Jewish Museum of Maryland, then restorat­ion of Portsmouth’s unused and unloved shule began in 2001.

The Jewish Museum of Florida, opened in 1995
Built in two restored historic synagogues buildings

Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage, Cleveland Ohio
opened 2005


Temple Tifereth-Israel in Beachwod Ohio was a Reform Synagogue founded in 1850. Unlike the other communities mentioned,  the Jewish community still thrives in Cleveland's eastern suburbs, so the Temple's membership is growing. In fact the Temple currently functions as one of several Jewish centres of community with a number of religious services eg Hebrew School and a library. The Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage opened in 2005, connected to Temple Tifereth-Israel. The two galleries show films, artefacts, art, documents and images.

Jacobs recognised that transforming old synagogues into new museums was problematic for some people, but I am not sure why. Was it sacrilegious to turn a house of worship into a secular museum where children played on their mobiles and ate icecream? Was it a diversion of precious community resources away from needed facilities?





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Mods Vs Rockers - teen independence or teen revolution?

In the USA teenage culture was reflected in popular culture, novels and films like Rebel Without a Cause (1955) and rock & roll by Bill Haley's Rock Around the Clock (1954). But the American term Youth Culture was not used in Britain until 1959. Teddy Boys were already appearing on the British social landscape in their drainpipe trousers, long coats and Brylcreem. Despite being dandies, many Teds were seen as tough because of tearing up cinema seats with knives and beating up West Indians in music halls. Many believed that a community was slowly evolving within a society and that it posed a threat to main­stream values. A generation gap had opened up, dominated by rebellion.

The Youth Culture idea suggested that teens aged from 14 were being socialised into a special set of values, attitudes and behaviour patterns, different from adult society. This new phenomenon might have been the result of rising living standards in the 1950s. Or because teens, preparing for independence, were struggling to free themselves by firm parental controls. And if the new youth culture came mostly from working class backgrounds, we can assume that this was another sign of struggling to free themselves from the respect­able middle class.

A new commercial industry revolving around clothes, music and milk bars emerged to meet the demands and aspirations of young people. And an issue that influenced British males (but not yet Aust­ralians) was compulsory National Service for every 17-21 year old. National Service didn’t end for Brits until 1963.

Beatles, 1963
well dressed Mods?

By the 1960s working-class lads were changing. The Mods with their handmade Italian suits and green par­kas took R & B and soul to their purple hearts and sped to night clubs on Lambrettas or Vespa scooters. In contrast, Rockers clad in heavy leather and chains had chunky motor bikes and were host­ile to the more effete Mods. Street battles took place on the rainy re­sort streets and triggered national popular press hysteria. Widely photographed and publicised then, these crises entered pop folklore and still remembered by older citizens today, including me.

The battle began during a cold Easter weekend in late March 1964. c1,000 or so young Londoners moved towards Clacton, a resort on England’s eastern coast. Bored with the bad weather and limited fac­ilities, lads divided into their own groups: there was stone-throwing and the aggressive appearance of teenage groups, unrestrain­ed by police.

On Easter Monday, the newspapers yelled “Wild Ones Invade Seaside - 97 Arrests”. Cit­ing fighting, drinking, roaring, rampaging lads on scooters and motorcycles, The Daily Mirror was referencing the infamous 1953 Mar­lon Brando film, The Wild One. By the mid-1960s this American film was still banned in Britain as it was likely to incite juvenile delinquency. [The ban was not lifted until 1968]. 

Mods and Rockers ride into a resort town
1964

Mods and Rockers fight on the beach
1964

Britain were going mad with Mods Vs Rockers riots in 1964. After the excited newspaper reports from Easter, holiday resorts grimly prepared for holiday weekends. The next incident also split on tribal lines: smart, scooter-riding contemporary Mods Vs leather-jacketed, scruffy Rockers. And although they had long hair, the Roc­kers were seen as throwbacks to Marlon Brando and 1950s Teddy Boys.

On the Whitsun weekend mid May 1964, newspapers in two resorts pre-published bold headlines like “Battle of Britain” and there were predict­ions of nat­ional collap­se. Editorials refer­red to the youths as vermin, a vic­ious exercise in degener­at­ion wreaking un­told havoc on Britain.

I want to ask if there were thousands of youth involved in the Brighton conflicts, why were only 76 were arr­est­ed. And consider the clashes bet­ween Mods and Rockers continued in Margate Kent where the fights were referred to as Gang Warfare. Why were even fewer youth in­vol­ved in Mar­gate and even fewer arr­ested? While def­in­itely disagree­able for the locals, these were not teen revolutions.

The relationship between the teenagers and the press was examined in Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett's book Generation X (1965) to capitalise on the chaos influencing contemp­or­ary youth. This valuable book counterbalanced the press and gave the teens space to speak freely. A new generat­ion was claiming its space and its time. The early Baby-Boomers (born 1946-50) were more confident, better educated and more restless than slightly older Teddy Boys. They were a separate youth world that took its cues from beat music, films and fashions.

Aus­t­ralians and New Zealanders will remember our bodgies and widgies of the late 1950s and early 1960s! And even in early 1960s, before I was old enough to drive, I well remember how anxious my middle class parents were.

What about The Beatles? If they were anything, they were Teddy Boys, albeit scrubbed up and well dressed. The usual answer was that their clothes and hair were like rockers in the early years and from 1963 on, The Beatles dressed more like mods. It didn’t matter. The battles soon faded as other styles came into youth culture prominence. 






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Apart from Australia's tennis players, I loved Arthur Ashe most of all.

Born in Richmond Va, Arthur Ashe (1943–93) began tennis at 7 at Brook­field Park, a segregated park near home. Years later he found a mentor in Dr Robert Johnson, who coached young black tennis stars. Arthur was a clever player, handsome, had a great body and was well behaved on court - these were the only things I cared about as a teen *sigh*.

Starting in 1959, Ashe made his major tournament debut at the USA Nationals. As the #5 ranked junior in the US, Ashe won the National Jun­ior Indoor Championship in 1962 and was awarded a schol­ar­ship to the University of California LA. At UCLA, Ashe attracted the attent­ion of tennis great Pancho Gonzales. He was a fixture at the US Nationals/US Open, playing 18 times. He was a semi-finalist in 1965, losing to champion Manuel Santana, and a finalist in 1972, losing to Ilie Năstase in a sensational match.

Althea Gibson had actually been the first black American tennis player to break the colour barrier! She went on to win the French Open singles and doubles and the Wimbledon doubles titles in 1956. But in the USA, 1968 was the first year amateurs and professionals could compete against each other in the Open. It was won by Arthur Ashe! When he accepted the cup, he threw an arm around the should­ers of his fiercely proud father who wept.

  Arthur Ashe holding his father's shoulder
Winning the USA Open 1968 

Ashe rose from segregation and racial roadblocks to become the first African-American male to win the US Open (1968), Australian Open (1970) and Wimbledon (1975). In 1963 he was the first African-American chosen to play Davis Cup for the USA, and in ten years representing his country, the US won five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978).

Ashe became an author, educator and campaigner for civil rights and racial equality, in the USA and in apartheid South Africa. Pam Shriver wrote that Arthur was a voice for all min­or­it­ies and for women. He brought a new consc­ience to the game, and his infl­uence lasted even after he left sport.

In Aug 1968, 25 year old Ashe was in the midst of a three-year Army term, and expectations were low. Seeded #5, Ashe became an unlikely US Open champion amongst a field that included four Australians seeded ahead of him: Rod Laver, Tony Roche, Ken Rosewall and John New­com­be. He was under no pressure to win the championship but as it happened, Ashe defeated talented Dutchman Tom Okker, seeded #8. I wanted the Australians to win, but Ashe was my next favourite player.

Ashe had become the first American in 14 years to win at Forest Hills, but the victory was limited. Ashe was still an amateur then, receiving a day rate as a member of the Davis Cup team; the $14,000 prize went to Okker. Thankfully in Dec 1968 he became the #1 ranked USA player. He had a great 1968 season, helping to lead the USA Davis Cup team to a clear 4-1 victory over Aust­ralia.

Ashe competed at the Australian Open six times, becoming the first African-American to win the title in 1970. He was a fin­alist in 1966, 1967 & 1971, losing to Roy Emerson the first two years and Rosewall in 1971 as the defending champion.

The red clay at Roland Garros was not especially suited for Ashe’s game. Rather it was the fast Wimb­le­don grass that best suited his serve-and-volleying. Ashe had been a semi-finalist at Wimbledon in 1968 and 1969. Wimb­le­don starred Connors, Rosewall, Borg, Vilas & Năstase, all seeded higher. Ashe had never defeated Connors in 3 previous meetings and was seeking his first Wimbledon title. His draw became more favourable as the fortnight progressed; he upset Borg in the quarterfinals and won in five long sets against Roche in the semi-finals. The final against Connors saw Ashe play perhaps his finest match, in a huge upset!

Arthur won a pair of major doubles titles, the first at the French in 1971 alongside Marty Riessen in a lengthy victory over fellow Americans and a second in straight sets at the 1977 Australian with partner Tony Roche. Ashe was firmly seated in the world’s Top 10.

Photo­­grapher Jeanne Moutoussamy married Arthur in 1977, and they had a much loved daughter, Camera.

In 1979, at 36, Ashe suffered his first heart attack that re­quired bypass surgery and led to his retirement from tennis. He suffered another heart attack and had bypass surgery in 1983. From a blood transfusion in one of these two surgeries, he contracted HIV.

His tennis career was over, but he was keen to continue his phil­anthropic and humanitarian endeav­ours, which occupied his life for a decade. He helped found the Ass­ociation of Tennis Professionals, the organisation that union­ised the profess­ion­al tour. Later he co-founded the National Junior Tennis League in New York City, Detroit, Atlanta etc. That same year he published his three-volume treatise A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete. And co-wrote the television adaptation of the book.

Daddy and Me
by Jeanne Moutoussamy Ashe, 1993

Ashe addressed the United Nations General Assembly in 1992, urging increased funding for AIDS research, and he also started the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health to bring healthcare programmes to the inner city. He died in 1993. One of his most prominent honours came when he was post­humously awarded the Presid­ential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton.

Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe published a photographic book, Daddy and Me (1993), including the sad AIDS crisis in Arthur’s last years. And thank you to the Official Arthur Ashe Website and International Tennis Hall of Fame page.




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2019: The fabulous year of Rembrandt

From 1639-58 Rembrandt lived and worked in a lovely house, now The Rembrandt House Museum Amsterdam. A contemporary inventory was used as the source for restoring the house with C17th furniture, art and objects.

Rembrandt House Museum
Amsterdam

In addition to works by the master himself, Rembrandt House Museum owns a small few paintings by Rembrandt’s teacher, his pupils, contemporaries and  and later artists. From Oct 2017 in this mus­eum there was the Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck – Rembrandt’s Master Pupils Exhibition. Many paintings came tog­et­her from museums and private collections all over the world, some of them back in the Dutch capital for the first time since the C17th.

The Leiden Collection, founded in 2003 by New Yorkers Thomas and Daph­ne Kaplan, includes c250 paintings and drawings. This large private collections of C17th Dutch paint­ings was largely int­ro­duced to the public in 2017 through a spec­ial exhib­it­ion at the Louvre. By late 2016, the discovery of a lost early-Rembrandt in the Leiden Coll­ection led to the Rembrandt’s First Painting: The Four Senses Exhibition.

Now two newly rediscovered paintings came to The Rembrandt House Museum in May 2018, recently acquired by the Kaplans. Rembrandt’s Portrait of Petronella Buys (1635) and Man with a Sword (c1642) were painted by Rembrandt and perhaps by a member of his work­shop as well.

First examine his Portrait of Petronella Buys 1635. It burst on the art market at Christie's in London in 2017, following decades of being in hiding. The portrait was sold as a Rembrandt portrait of the wife of Philips Lucasz (d 1641) who was based with the Dutch East India Co./VOC. He rose to become Commissioner Extra­ordinary of the Indies in 1631.

Rembrandt, Portrait of Petronella Buys 
1635, 80 x 56 cm, 
The Leiden Collection

Rembrandt, Portrait of Philips Lucasz, 
1635, 80 x 59 cm
National Gallery London

Petronella had travelled in 1629 with her sister Maria Odilia Buys and brother-in-law Jacques Specx (1588-1652), who was also employed by the VOC. In 1633 Philips commanded a trad­ing fleet returning to Holland, bringing Petronella with him and they mar­r­ied shortly after their arrival at The Hague in Aug 1634. They returned togeth­er to the East Indies in May 1635. But sadly Pet­ronella was widowed six years later when Philips died aboard ship to Cey­lon. She immed­iate­ly returned home to live in Amsterdam, and in Dec 1645 she mar­r­ied her second husband Johan Cardon, Mayor of Vliss­ingen and governor of the VOC. She died in Sept 1670.

Petronella Buys sat for Remb­ran­dt in early 1635. Her portrait and its pendant pair were first documented in the coll­ect­ion of brother-in-law Jacques Specx (d1653) in his post-mortem inventory. Specx had been an important early patron of Rembrandt and the same inventory listed three other paint­ings by the artist. So it was thought that Specx commissioned them himself. On his death, they were inherited by his daughter Maria (1636-1704).

By 1820 the two marital portraits had become separated from each other and it wasn’t until 1913 that they were again recognised as a pair. An old inscription on the back of the present work identified the sit­ter as Petronella Buys and mentioned a companion portrait of her husband. It was discovered by Hofstede de Groot, who found in Philips Lucasz’s National Gallery London picture a portrait that corresp­onded to the details. He also noted that the gold chain worn by Philips alluded to his role in the East India Co., where they gave chain gifts to successful commanders.

The Petronella portrait bore Remb­r­andt’s signature. Yet in 1989 the Rembrandt Research Project suggested that hers was prob­ab­ly painted by an assistant. New resear­ch has suggested that Rem­b­randt painted the work himself, but rath­er more loos­e­ly than norm­al.

Remb­randt clearly took certain shortcuts in her portrait, perh­aps work­ing quickly because the picture had to be finished before Pet­ronella sailed back to Batavia in May 1635. The black in her cost­ume had largely been blocked in, giving a vague sense of the cloth pattern, but little textural detail. The strands of her gold chain had been painted in an abbreviated mann­er, as if applied as an aft­erthought over her black dress to echo her husband’s chain. The painting of her ruff, made up of broad sweeps of white and grey paint with highlights, were quickly applied, but gave a perceptible sense of volume and lightness.

The years 1631-5, Rembrandt’s First Amster­dam Era, was his time of hectic activity. Operating out of the Amst­erdam workshop of Hend­rick Uylenburgh, Rembrandt cornered the portrait mark­et, using his history-painting experience to produce works that were more dynamic than his riv­als’. Rembrandt produced at least 65 port­raits during these years, presumably out of fin­an­cial necessity. The majority of these portraits used oval format panels, in pendant pairs.

Rembrandt, Man with a Sword, 
c1642, 102 x 89 cm, 
New York

Pet­r­onella was criticised, based on a new exam­in­ation of the pict­ure in 1971 when a “studio assistant” was said to be resp­onsible for the clothing in both portraits. Comparison between the two pic­tures, which had been conducted at the National Gallery, argued against a diff­er­ence in execution between the two portraits. So despite the slightly better state of preservation of the London picture, the two were entirely compatible in style terms. This led the scholars in 2006 to refute the claim of “studio” work; both paintings were entirely painted by Remb­ran­dt. 

Finally let me briefly mention Man with a Sword c1642. The Leiden Collection was con­sidered to be a painting by Rembrandt with an excellent prov­en­ance, until scholars questioned the attribution in 1970. Recent research has revealed that Rembr­an­dt both designed and painted the port­rait, but that it was later subjected to changes by one of his pupils in his workshop. While a pupil painted much of the underlying portrait, Rem­brandt’s hand was clearly visible in the rendering of the face, a la his early 1640s work.

The Rijksmuseum is also marking the 350th anniversary of Rembrandt’s death until Jan 2020 with exhibitions celebrating the work of one of the truly great Old Masters.






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Drama and Devotion - to my beloved Caravaggio

Beyond Caravaggio was exhibited in the UK to explore the influence of Caravaggio on the art of his Italian, French, Flemish, Dutch and Spanish followers. This collaboration between Britain’s three National Galleries took place between 2016-17.

Now the Georgia Museum of Art at the University of Georgia has an exhibition of paintings on loan from Bob Jones University by Caravaggio-inspired artists. The Drama and Devotion in Baroque Rome Exhibition will continue from Jul 2019—May 2020.

Consider how Michelangelo Merisi da Car­av­aggio (1571–1610)’s revol­ut­ion­ary style attracted artists from across Europe The works presented, from Bob Jones University, celebrate how Caravaggio shaped the Italian Baroque and gained followers. One of the main highlights is a Crucifixion by Peter Paul Rubens, who spent 8+ years in Italy.

While the Protestants loathed the cult of images, the Catholic Church keenly embraced art’s religious power. The visual arts, the Catholics argued, played a key role in guiding the Faith­ful. Art was as important as the written and spoken word, or even more so since it was also accessible to the ill­iterate. Religious art had to be unambiguous and powerful. It had to instruct, inspire and to move the Faithful to feel the reality of Christ’s sacrifice, the martyrs’ suffering and the saints’ visions.

Caravaggio, Taking of Christ, c1602
134 x 170cm
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin

Caravaggio, Crowning with Thorns, c1603
166 x 127 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


The Church’s emphasis on art’s teaching role prompted experiment­ation with new and more direct means of engaging the viewer. Artists like Caravaggio turned to a powerful and dramatic realism, with bold contrasts of light and dark, and tightly-cropped images that enhanced the physical and emotional immediacy of the story.

Some artists, eg Annibale Carracci, settled on a more Renaissance visual language, inspired by the vibrant palette, id­eal­ised forms and balanced compositions. Oth­ers eg Giov­anni Gaulli produced brave feats of il­l­us­ionism that blurred the boundaries between paint­ing, sculpture & architecture. Thus the Divine became tangible. Whether through shocking real­ism, dynamic move­ment or exuberant ornam­ent­ation, early C17th art was meant to impress. The viewer saw the truth of its message.. via his senses and emotions.

Painters from across Europe flocked to Rome to see Car­av­aggio. They copied his stark contrast of light and dark, powerful realism and dramatic sense of staging. French painters like Val­entin de Boulog­ne, Georges de La Tour, Nicolas Régnier and Simon Vouet, Span­iard Jusepe de Ribera and Dutchmen Hendrick Ter Brugghen and Gerrit van Hon­th­orst all admired Caravaggio’s works.

Ribera (1591-1652)’s paintings of saints (eg St Jerome) and large-scale devotional paintings eg Lamentation over the Dead Christ, reflected his years spent in Rome. Caravaggio’s works encouraged Ribera’s religious presentat­ions. And Ribera, in turn, was cred­it­ed with the spread of the Caravaggesque style to Spain and to Diego Velázquez.

Earlier in 2019, the Utrecht, Caravaggio and Europe Exhibition brought 1600-1630 Rome to the Centraal Museum Utrecht. Presenting 70 masterworks until March 2019, Utrecht was the first to display the local artists alongside the above list of Caravaggisti. Carav­aggio’s epic En­tombment of Christ (1602–3 from the Vatican) was the highlight of the Utrecht Exhibition, examining how the Italian baroque painter inspired a generation of artists in Utrecht.

Ironically Caravaggio was very sensitive when it came to matters of artistic origin­ality: he threatened the painters Guido Reni and Giovanni Baglione for copying his style.

Florence’s Biennale Internazionale dell’Antiquariato (21–29th Sept 2019) exhibited an early masterpiece by Guido Reni: Saint Jerome (1606-10). Since its rediscovery and sale at Christie’s in London, the Reni was cleaned to reveal the powerfully expressive figure in all its glory.

During his early years in Rome, Caravaggio completed some of his best-known easel works to sell on the open market. These paint­ings included depictions of themes that were uncommon in Roman art at the time eg rogues and revellers. Followers must have loved Carav­ag­gio’s images of the seedy lowlife of Roman street-life eg Card-sharps (c1594) and The Fortune-teller (1594), or his music-making images eg Musicians (1595) and Lute Player (1596).

Unlike the typical Re­naissance master-follower relationship, Car­av­aggio’s followers had no con­nection with Caravag­gio’s studio, and in some cases they had not even seen his paintings first-hand. Some artists imitated Car­av­ag­gio for only a brief part of their careers while others remained committed to his style model forever.

Italian, Spanish, French and Netherlandish followers loved Caravag­gio’s use of dark shadows to obscure parts of the image. Car­avag­gio’s tenebrism and chiaroscuro, the strong contrast of light and dark, lent drama to his works. By combining theat­rical drama and careful real-life observation, Caravaggio ach­ieved a nat­ur­alism in both religious and secular scenes. This contributed to his wide­spread appeal during the first three decades of the C17th.
 
Orazio Gentileschi, 1606-7
The Martyrs St Valeriano, St Tiburzio and St Cecilia,
3.5 x 2.2m


In Pietro Paolini’s drink­­ers and revellers in his Al­l­egory of the Senses, he superimposed the dark, solemn tones of Caravaggio’s later religious paintings, on top of Caravaggio’s youthful themes.

Followers could borrow from Caravaggio whichever asp­ects of his style and method that they liked most. Painters like Or­az­io Gentileschi and his daughter Artemisia Gent­ileschi, who knew Caravaggio personally, did have direct contact with their hero but their work retained a character all its own. The Gent­ileschis produced more lyrical paintings than did Caravaggio. And in­corp­orating the cold blues, yellows and violets that were notably absent from Caravaggio’s palette, their paintings often reflected local influen­ces.

Nevertheless their work showed a love of Carav­ag­gio’s tenebrism and religious iconography. In St Francis in Ecstasy (1607), Orazio favoured the intimate saint-angel relation­ship seen in Caravaggio’s St Francis. In Judith Beheading Holo­fernes, Artemisia Gentileschi showed the violent struggle of decap­itation emphasised in Caravaggio’s painting. Horror and conviction were both seen in Jud­ith’s face.

Gerard van Honthorst, c1617
Christ before the High Priest,
National Gallery London


Jusepe de Ribera:
St Paul the Hermit, c1638
Baltimore, Walters Art Museum


Other Caravaggisti were also influenced by the artist’s humanising dep­ictions of religious subjects. For instance in Doubting Thomas, Ter Brugghen, Honthorst and Mattias Stomer repro­duced the special half-length figures from Carav­ag­gio’s c1602 painting. In fact these Nor­thern artists pop­ularised Doubting Thom­as imagery in Utrecht then. Carav­aggio’s app­eal during the first decades of the C17th must have been very wide­spread indeed.

Be still, my beating heart!






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Bauhaus exhibitions, exactly 100 years after the Academy opened in Germany

I wrote about Bauhaus' 100th anniversary: 1919-2019 a few months ago. Basically, when the tragedies of WW1 finally ended, architect Walter Gropius founded Bauhaus School of Art & D in Weimar Germany to design for the new world. Although operating for only 14 years (1919-33) be­fore being shut down by the Nazis, Bauhaus was said to have become the most influential art and design academy in history.

In 1976 the Galerie am Sachsenplatz in Leipzig sold 148 Bauhauser works to the City of Dessau. The objects kept in this dist­inctive Dessau Collection told the story of teaching and learning, free design, the development of indust­r­ial prototypes, artistic experiment and links with the market­place. And consider its stars across a range of dis­cip­lin­es, including typo­grapher Herbert Bayer, textile art­ist Anni Albers and sculptor Mar­ianne Brandt. Teachers included artist Wassily Kandinsky and arch­itect Mies van der Rohe.

The Bauhaus Museum Dessau design came from Barcelona, selected from 800+ submissions in a 2015 international competition. The jury want­­ed a soaring steelwork block in a glass envelope, designed in the Bauhaus spirit and paid for by the Federal and the State Governments in Germany.

Architect FRS Yorke and designer Marcel Breuer. 
RIBA Collections

The foundation stone for the new museum was laid in Dec 2016. The transparent ground floor, the Open Stage museum foyer, serves as an open platform offering temporary exhibitions of cont­emporary works. The museum is located in the city park in the centre of Dessau, connecting the central business district and the periphery of the park. In Sept 2018, the upper floor and roof area were completed.

The opening of Bauhaus Museum Dessau in Sept 2019 was a highlight of the centenary. And the unique collection, with 49,000 catal­og­ued objects, has been on display. Called Versuchs­stätte Bauhaus - The Collection visitors can travel the historical exhib­it­ion that follows the history of the school in Dessau. See the furniture, lamps, text­iles and works of visual artists. The Arena con­nects directly to the social understanding of his­toric Bau­haus as a collective community. An Open Stage as platform for contemporary and temporary exhibitions on the ground floor.

For the school's 100th anniversary year in 2019, art and design museums and galleries around the world have hosted, and will host events. The Moscow, Sao Paulo, Munster, New Delhi, Berlin, Gera, Rotterdam, London, Essen, Tel Aviv and Chicago exhibitions have already ended.

Note the following important exhibitions and conferences that will be continuing into 2020 and beyond:

April–Oct 2019 In Herzogliches Museum in Gotha Germany, the exhib­it­­ion focused on the life and work of Oskar Schlemmer: Bauhaus and the Path to Modernity, famous for his multi-disciplinary work as a painter, graphic artist, sculptor, stage designer and muralist.

March 2019–Jan 2020 Centred around his Haus Schulenburg in Gera Germany, this exhibition explores the life and work of modernist architect and artist Henry van de Velde. It also features his neo-impressionist paintings and book designs.

April 2019–March 2024 The Neues Museum in Weimar is celebrating the legacy of the school with the early works of modernist Weimar art, and its relat­ion­ship to the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. See Van de Velde, Nietzsche and Modernism.

Sept-Oct 2019 Operating over 3 consecutive weeks in three different cities (Berlin, Dessau and Weimar), the Triennale der Moderne has built a network of modernism.

Architect William Lescaze
High Cross House, Devon, 1932
RIBA Collections


Architect Marcel Breuer  
Sea Lane House, West Sussex, 1936-7
The Modern House

This exhibition highlights include:
A] Drawings and plans by the partnership of Walter Gropius and Maxwell Fry, including the unbuilt Isokon 3 building;
B] Unseen illustrations, sketches and personal photography from the archive of Leslie Martin;
C] Furniture & interiors by Marcel Breuer & Wells Coates;
D] Photographs by ex-Bauhaus student Edith Tudor-Hart;
E] Works by Elizabeth Denby, Sadie Speight, Margaret Blanco-White, Norah Aiton & Betty Scott, important female architects engaged with modernist avant-garde ideals.
F] Archival 1930s films incl László Moholy-Nagy; and
G] Personal correspondence and ephemera that tracked the personal lives of the key protagonists

Oct 2019–Feb 2020 The Royal Institute of British Architects/RIBA in Lon­don explores the development of British modernist architecture via the Bau­haus movement. The exhibition foc­uses on 3 notable Bau­haus­ers: Wal­t­er Gropius, Marcel Breuer and László Moholy-Nagy, and their impact on Britain. In 1936 Breuer left Germany for England and associated with British architect FRS Yorke, which led him to some design motifs he later used.

Enjoy the article “Bauhaus exhibitions in 2019 celebrating the school’s centenary”.











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